THE EFFECTS OF CIGARETTE SMOKES RESIDUES ON THIRD HAND SMOKERS

Dr Babajide J.O. andFalade E.I.

Department of Chemistry, Adeyemi College of Education, Ondo

E-mails:- Jobras2003@gmail.com or babajidejo@aceondo.edu.ng

Cell Number:- +2348066926344

 

ABSTRACT

The effects of cigarette on First hand smokers (FHS) (smoke which is inhaled into a smoker’s own lungs) and Second hand smokers (SHS) (product of mainstream exhaled smoke and side-stream smoke from the smouldering tips of a cigarette) are considerably known to be hazardous and can cause cancer but the possible effects of cigarette smokes on Third hand smokers (THS) (consists of tobacco smoke pollutants that remain on surfaces and in dust after tobacco has been smoked, are re-emitted and re-suspended back into the air, or react with oxidants and other compounds in the environment to yield secondary pollutants) are relatively unknown and this has brought about a trend of interest in this research work.

Tobacco smoke is known to contain over 4000 chemical constituents which includes human harmful Carcinogens, Tars, Nitrosamines, Poisonous gases (CO), Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) etc that can lead to cancer, lung and heart disease, premature skin ageing, delayed wound healing, as well as a number of skin disorders, viral infections such as genital warts leading to cervical cancer, vulva cancer or penile intraepithelial cancer, etc.

Nicotine was extracted from two commercial cigarette, using toluene and barium hydroxide. This was titrated with Perchloric acid in aqueous solution using glacial acetic acid as solvent. The solution was also titrated with different extracts of nicotine from the smoke residues and also from the inhaled portion using suction pump as a means of inhalation.

From data gathered from the experiment above, tobacco from sample A has a total nicotine value of 25.11mg as against the 1.0mg that the manufacturer wrote on it, the smoker only inhales 2.8mg of the 25.11mg of nicotine present while the other 22.8mg are been exhaled into the environment which stores up and forms the third hand smoke laden on walls, cloths, glass wares and re-inhaled. 

From nicotine taken from sample B, the total amount of nicotine extracted was 12.8mg anda the portion inhaled was 4.6mg/ml. this is against the 0.5mg which the producer wrote as the amount of nicotine present in the cigarette. A total amount of 8.2mg were been exhaled into the environment and these are the laden smokes that has effect on non smokers (the third hand effects). This is against the world health organizations’ standards that each cigarette should contain a maximum of 1.0mg inhaled by the smokers.

These observations clearly indicate that the amount of nicotine that is let out in the environment is far greater than the amount of nicotine inhale by the smoker. Therefore people who found themselves in the environment where cigarette is being smoked are of great dangers because, the nicotine left in the environment has higher concentration.

From this research, it is evident that nicotine exhaled into the environment is of higher risk than the one being inhaled by the person who smokes. This is a vital issue as the general public has to be aware of the dangers and risk posed by this high percentage of nicotine being released day by day at pubs, houses, bars and for those who doesn’t smoke but lives with smokers.